Basis of consolidation
Subsidiaries are all entities over which the Group has the power to govern the financial and operating policies, generally accompanying a shareholding of more than one half of the voting rights and taking into account the existence of potential voting rights. Subsidiaries are fully consolidated from the date on which control is transferred to the Group. They are de-consolidated from the date that control ceases.
The purchase method of accounting is used to account for the acquisition of subsidiaries by the Group. The recognised identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of a subsidiary are measured at their fair values at the date of acquisition. The interest of minority shareholders is stated at the minority’s proportion of the fair values of the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities recognised. Where necessary, adjustments are made to the financial statements of subsidiaries to bring the accounting policies used into line with those used by the Group. All inter-company transactions and balances between Group entities are eliminated on consolidation.
(b) Joint ventures
An entity is regarded as a joint venture if the Group has joint control over its operating and financial policies. The Group’s interests in jointly-controlled entities are accounted for by proportionate consolidation, whereby the Group’s share of the joint ventures’ income and expenses, assets and liabilities and cash flows are combined on a line-by-line basis with similar items in the Group’s financial statements. Where necessary, adjustments are made to the financial statements of joint ventures to bring the accounting policies used into line with those used by the Group. The Group recognises the portion of gains or losses on the sale of assets to the joint venture that is attributable to the other venturers. The Group does not recognise its share of profits or losses from the joint venture that result from the Group’s purchase of assets from the joint venture until it resells the assets to an external entity.
An entity is regarded as an associate if the Group has significant influence, but not control, over its operating and financial policies. Significant influence generally exists where the Group holds more than 20% and less than 50% of the shareholders’ voting rights. Associates are accounted for under the equity method whereby the Group’s income statement includes its share of their profits and losses and the Group’s statement of financial position includes its share of their net assets. Where necessary, adjustments are made to the financial statements of associates to bring the accounting policies used into line with those used by the Group. When the Group’s share of losses in an associate equals or exceeds its interest in the associate, including any other unsecured receivables, the Group does not recognise further losses, unless it has incurred obligations or made payments on behalf of the associate.
Foreign currency translation
(a) Functional and presentational currency
Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group’s entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (the ‘functional currency’). The consolidated financial statements are presented in pounds sterling, which is the Group’s presentational currency.
(b) Transactions and balances
Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at period end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the income statement, except when deferred in equity as qualifying cash flow hedges and qualifying net investment hedges.
(c) Group entities
From 1 April 2004, the results and financial position of all the Group’s entities that have a functional currency different from the presentational currency are translated into the presentation currency as follows:
- (i)assets and liabilities, including goodwill and fair value adjustments for each statement of financial position presented, are translated at the closing rate at the date of that statement of financial position;
- (ii)income and expenses for each income statement and cash flows are translated at weighted average exchange rates as a reasonable approximation to the rates prevailing on the transaction dates; and
- (iii)all resulting exchange differences are recognised as a separate component of equity.
Prior to 1 April 2004, exchange differences were recognised in retained earnings.
On consolidation, exchange differences arising from borrowings and other currency instruments designated as hedges of such investments, are taken to equity.
When a foreign operation is sold, such exchange differences that have accumulated since 1 April 2004 are recognised in the income statement as part of the gain or loss on sale.
Property, plant and equipment
Land and buildings mainly comprise manufacturing sites and administrative facilities.
Property, plant and equipment is stated at historical cost less depreciation and impairment. Historical cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the items. Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All repairs and maintenance expenditures are charged to the income statement during the financial period in which they are incurred.
Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method to allocate the cost or revalued amount of each asset to its residual value over its useful economic life as follows:
The assets’ residual values and useful lives are reviewed at each statement of financial position date and adjusted if appropriate. An asset’s carrying amount is written down immediately to its recoverable amount if the asset’s carrying amount is greater than its estimated recoverable amount.
In the prior year the useful lives of certain assets were adjusted which resulted in a reduction in the depreciation charge by approximately £6 million.
Gains and losses on disposals are determined by comparing the disposal proceeds with the carrying amount and are included in the income statement.
Leases of property, plant and equipment where the Group assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Assets held under finance leases are capitalised at the lower of the fair value of the leased asset and the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding leasing commitments, net of finance charges, are included in liabilities.
Leasing payments are analysed between capital and interest components so that the interest element is charged to the income statement over the period of the lease at a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability outstanding.
Depreciation on assets held under finance leases is charged to the income statement.
All other leases are treated as operating leases with annual rentals charged to the income statement, net of any incentives granted to the lessee, over the term of the lease.
Goodwill is calculated as the difference between the fair value of the consideration exchanged in a business combination, including directly attributable acquisition costs, and the net fair values of the identifiable assets and liabilities acquired and is capitalised. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually and whenever there is an indication of impairment and is carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses.
Where the acquired interest in the net fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities exceeds the cost of the business combination, the excess is recognised immediately in the income statement.
Gains and losses on the disposal of a business component include the carrying amount of goodwill relating to the entity sold.
(b) Patents and other intellectual property
Patents and other intellectual property are shown at historical cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses. Where the assets are acquired as part of a business combination, historical cost is based on their fair values as at the date of the combination. Amortisation of the assets is recognised on a straight-line basis over the period of their expected benefit.
(c) Other acquired intangible assets
Other acquired intangible assets are intangible assets arising on consolidation of acquired businesses and include brands, recipes, customer relationships and supplier networks. Amortisation of the assets is recognised on a straight-line basis over the period of their expected benefit.
(d) Other intangible assets
Other intangible assets mainly include certain development expenditure and software costs. Costs incurred on development projects (relating to the design and testing of new or improved products) are recognised as intangible assets when the IAS 38 recognition criteria are met. Capitalised development costs are amortised from the commencement of the commercial production of the product on a straight-line basis over the period of its expected benefit. Research and other development expenditures are recognised as an expense as incurred. Development costs previously recognised as an expense are not recognised as an asset in a subsequent period.
Assets that have an indefinite useful life are not subject to amortisation and are tested annually for impairment. In addition, assets in the course of construction are not depreciated and are subject to annual impairment review. Assets that are subject to amortisation or depreciation are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognised for the amount by which the asset’s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s fair value less costs to sell and value in use. For the purposes of assessing impairment, assets other than goodwill are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash inflows. Goodwill is allocated to units representing the lowest level at which goodwill is monitored by the Group’s Board of Directors for internal management purposes. Further details are given in .
(a) Available-for-sale financial assets
Equity instruments held by the Group and designated as available-for-sale are carried at fair value, with movements in fair value recognised directly in equity. Cumulative fair value gains or losses on an asset are recycled through the income statement when the asset is disposed or impaired. A significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of the security below its cost is considered as an indicator that the securities are impaired. Impairments are recognised in the income statement.
(b) Loans and receivables
Non-current and current receivables and loans granted are recognised initially at fair value and thereafter carried at amortised cost less provisions for impairment. Movements in carrying value are recognised in the income statement.
Borrowings are recognised initially at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred. Where borrowings are designated as hedged items under fair value hedges, they are subsequently remeasured for fair value changes in respect of the hedged risk with such changes recognised in the income statement. Otherwise, borrowings are subsequently stated at amortised cost; any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption value is recognised in the income statement over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest method. Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the Group has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the balance sheet date.
(d) Commodity trading instruments
Commodity instruments acquired for trading purposes are carried at fair value. Movements in fair value are recognised in the income statement.
(e) Commodity and treasury hedging instruments
Under IAS 39, hedging relationships are categorised by type and must meet strict criteria to qualify for hedge accounting.
- (i)Cash flow hedges
Hedges of firm commitments and highly probable forecast transactions, including forecast intra-group transactions that are expected to affect consolidated profit or loss, are designated as cash flow hedges. To the extent that movements in the fair values of these instruments effectively offset the underlying risk being hedged they are recognised in the hedging reserve in equity until the period during which the hedged forecast transaction affects profit or loss, at which point the cumulative gain or loss is recognised in the income statement, offsetting the value of the hedged transaction.
- (ii)Fair value hedges
Hedges against the movement in fair value of recognised assets and liabilities are designated as fair value hedges. To the extent that movements in the fair values of these instruments effectively offset the underlying risk being hedged they are recognised in the income statement by offset against the hedged transaction.
- (iii)Hedges of net investments
Hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation are designated as net investment hedges. To the extent that movements in the fair values of these instruments effectively offset the underlying risk being hedged they are recognised in the translation reserve until the period during which a foreign operation is disposed of or partially disposed of, at which point the cumulative gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss, offsetting the cumulative difference recognised on the translation of the net investment.
Hedge accounting is discontinued at the point when the hedging relationship no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. In the case of cash flow hedging relationships, the cumulative movement in the fair value of the hedging instrument previously recognised in equity up to that point is retained there until the forecast transaction affects profit or loss, unless the hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, in which case the cumulative movement in fair value is transferred to profit or loss immediately. Movements in the fair value of hedging instruments where the relationship failed to meet the IAS39 hedge accounting criteria or where the movement represents the ineffective portion of a qualifying hedging relationship are recognised in the income statement immediately as other income and expense or net finance expense, as appropriate.
(f) Embedded derivatives
Where an embedded derivative is not closely related to the host contract and where the host contract itself is not already recognised at fair value, movements in the fair value of the embedded derivative are separated from the associated transaction and, except where the embedded derivative is designated as a cash flow hedging instrument, recognised in the income statement.
(g) Fair values
Fair values are based on market values where they are available. For unlisted securities the Group establishes fair value using valuation techniques. These include the use of recent arm’s length transactions, reference to other similar instruments and discounted cash flow analysis.
Where no market prices are available, the fair value of financial liabilities is calculated with reference to discounted expected future cash flows.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value with the exception of certain items of merchandisable agricultural commodities which are stated at market value, in line with regional industry accounting practices.
Cost comprises direct materials and, where applicable, direct labour costs and those overheads that have been incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is calculated using the ‘first in – first out’ or weighted average cost methods, appropriate to the materials and production processes involved. Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price less all estimated costs to completion and costs to be incurred in marketing, selling and distribution.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, deposits held at call with banks, other short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less, and bank overdrafts which are not considered to be borrowings in nature.
Ordinary shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.
Where any Group company purchases the Company’s equity share capital and holds that share either directly as treasury shares or indirectly within an ESOP trust, the consideration paid, including any directly attributable incremental costs (net of income taxes), is deducted from equity attributable to the Company’s equity holders until the shares are cancelled, reissued or disposed. Where such shares are subsequently sold or reissued, any consideration received, net of any directly attributable incremental transaction costs and the related income tax effects, is included in equity attributable to the Company’s equity holders. These shares are used to satisfy share options granted to employees under the Group’s share option schemes. The trustee of the ESOP trust purchases the Company’s shares on the open market using loans made by the Company or other loans guaranteed by the Company.
Provisions for liabilities and charges are recognised when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, it is more likely than not that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and the amount can be reliably measured. If the effect is material, provisions are measured using expected future cash flows discounted at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. The impact of unwinding any discount is taken to finance expense.
Provisions are not recognised for future operating losses. A provision for onerous contracts is recognised when the expected benefits to be derived by the Group from a contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract.
The charge for current tax is based on the results for the year as adjusted for items which are non-taxable or disallowed. It is calculated using rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.
Deferred tax is accounted for using the balance sheet liability method in respect of temporary differences arising from differences between the carrying amount of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax basis used in the computation of taxable profit. In principle, deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences (except as noted below) and deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary differences arise from goodwill or from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of other assets and liabilities in a transaction which affects neither the tax profit nor the accounting profit.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for taxable temporary differences arising on investments in subsidiaries and associates, and interests in joint ventures, except where the Group is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
Deferred tax is calculated using the enacted or substantively enacted rates that are expected to apply when the asset or liability is settled. Deferred tax is charged or credited in the income statement, except when it relates to items credited or charged directly to equity, in which case the deferred tax is also dealt with in equity.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the Group intends to settle its current tax assets and liabilities on a net basis.
(a) Sales of goods and services
Sales comprise the amount receivable in the ordinary course of business, net of value added and sales taxes, for goods and services provided. Sales are recognised at the point or points at which the Group has performed its obligations in connection with the contractual terms of the sales agreement, and in exchange obtains the right to consideration.
(b) Interest income
Interest income is recognised on a time-proportion basis using the effective interest method.
(c) Dividend income
Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.
(a) Pension obligations
Group companies operate various pension schemes. The schemes are generally funded through payments to insurance companies or trustee payments to insurance companies or trustee-administered funds, determined by periodic actuarial calculations. The Group has both defined benefit and defined contribution plans.
A defined benefit plan is a pension plan that defines an amount of pension benefit that an employee will receive on retirement, usually dependent on one or more factors such as age, years of service and compensation.
A defined contribution plan is a pension plan under which the Group pays fixed contributions into a separate entity. The Group has no legal or constructive obligations to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employees the benefits relating to employee service in the current and prior periods.
The amounts recognised in the statement of financial position in respect of defined benefit pension plans are the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the balance sheet date less the fair value of plan assets, together with adjustments for actuarial gains or losses charged or credited to equity and past service costs. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by independent actuaries using the projected unit credit method. The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows using interest rates of high-quality corporate bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid, and that have terms to maturity approximating to the terms of the related pension liability. Past service costs are recognised immediately in income, unless the changes to the pension plan are conditional on the employees remaining in service for a specified period of time (the vesting period). In this case, the past service costs are amortised on a straight-line basis over the vesting period.
Any gains or losses from settlement or curtailment is recognised in the income statement when the curtailment or settlement occurs.
Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to equity immediately through the statement of comprehensive income.
Where the actuarial valuation of a scheme demonstrates that the scheme is in surplus, the recognised asset is limited to that for which the Group expects to benefit in future by refunds or a reduction in contribution.
For defined contribution plans, the Group pays contributions to publicly or privately administered pension insurance plans on a mandatory, contractual or voluntary basis. The Group has no further payment obligations once the contributions have been paid. The contributions are recognised as employee benefit expense when they are due. Prepaid contributions are recognised as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in the future payments is available.
(b) Other post-employment obligations
Some Group companies provide post-employment healthcare benefits to their retirees. The entitlement to these benefits is usually conditional on the employee remaining in service up to retirement age and the completion of a minimum service period. The expected costs of these benefits are accrued over the period of employment using an accounting methodology similar to that for defined benefit pension plans. Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to equity immediately. These obligations are valued annually by independent qualified actuaries.
(c) Share-based compensation
The Group operates a number of equity-settled, share-based compensation plans. The fair value of employee services received in exchange for the grant of the options is recognised as an expense. The total amount to be expensed over the vesting period is determined by reference to the fair value of the options granted, excluding the impact of any non-market vesting conditions (for example, earnings targets). Non-market vesting conditions are included in assumptions about the number of options that are expected to become exercisable. At each balance sheet date, for options granted with non-market vesting conditions, the Group revises its estimates of the number of options that are expected to become exercisable. It recognises the impact of the revision of original estimates, if any, in the income statement, and a corresponding adjustment to equity. The proceeds received net of any directly attributable transaction costs are credited to share capital and share premium when the options are exercised.
Research and development
Research expenditure is recognised in the income statement in the year in which it is incurred. Development expenditure is recognised in the income statement in the year in which it is incurred unless it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the Group from the asset being developed, the cost of the asset can be reliably measured and technical feasibility can be demonstrated and there is an intention to complete and utilise the asset. When the recognition criteria are met, development costs are capitalised as an intangible asset and are amortised on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life from the time the asset is available for use.
Borrowing costs directly arising from the purchase, construction or production of an asset are capitalised as part of the cost of that asset.
Exceptional items comprise items of income and expense, including tax items, that are material in amount and unlikely to recur and which merit separate disclosure in order to provide an understanding of the Group’s underlying financial performance. Examples of events giving rise to the disclosure of material items of income and expense as exceptional items include, but are not limited to, impairment events, disposals of operations or individual assets, litigation claims by or against the Group and the restructuring of components of the Group’s operations. See for further details.
A government grant is recognised when there is reasonable assurance that any conditions attached to the grant will be satisfied and the grants will be received. A government grant is recognised at its fair value and is accounted for as a deduction against the cost concerned or within other income over the periods necessary to match the grants with the related costs that they are intended to compensate.
Final dividend distributions to the Company’s equity holders are recognised as a liability in the Group’s financial statements in the period in which the dividends are approved by the Company’s shareholders, while interim dividend distributions are recognised in the period in which the dividends are declared and paid. Where a scrip alternative is offered and taken, the distribution is effected through an issue of bonus shares from the share premium account.
As disclosed in and , the Group has adopted IFRS 8 Operating Segments. IFRS 8 requires that entities adopt the management approach to identifying reportable operating segments and reporting the financial performance of those segments. Segment information is reported for those components for which separate financial information is available and which management uses internally for allocating resources and assessing performance.
Discontinued operations and assets held for sale
Business components that represent separate major lines of business or geographical areas of operations are recognised as discontinued if the operations have been disposed of, are being abandoned or meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale.
Assets and disposal groups are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be principally recovered through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. This condition is regarded as met only when the sale is highly probable, expected to be completed within one year and the asset (or disposal group) is available for immediate sale in its present condition. Operations held for sale are held at the lower of their carrying amount on the date they are classified as held for sale and fair value less costs to sell.