Notes to the consolidated financial statements

In order to prepare these consolidated financial statements in accordance with the accounting policies set out in Note 2, management has used estimates and judgements to establish the amounts at which certain items are recorded. Critical accounting estimates and judgements are those that have the greatest impact on the financial statements and require the most difficult, subjective and complex judgements about matters that are inherently uncertain. Estimates are based on factors including historical experience and expectations of future events that management believe to be reasonable. However, given the judgemental nature of such estimates, actual results could be different from the assumptions used. The critical accounting estimates and judgements are set out below.

Impairment of assets

Asset impairments have the potential to significantly impact income. In order to determine whether impairments are required the Group estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. This calculation is usually based on projecting future cash flows over a five-year period and using a terminal value to incorporate expectations of growth thereafter. A discount factor is applied to obtain a current value (‘value in use’). The ‘fair value less costs to sell’ of an asset is used if this results in an amount in excess of ‘value in use’.

Estimated future cash flows for impairment calculations are based on management’s expectations of future volumes and margins based on plans and best estimates of the productivity of the assets in their current condition. Future cash flows therefore exclude benefits from major expansion projects requiring future capital expenditure where that expenditure has not been approved at the balance sheet date.

Future cash flows are discounted using a discount rate based on the Group’s weighted average cost of capital, adjusted if appropriate for circumstances specific to the asset being tested. The weighted average cost of capital is impacted by estimates of interest rates, equity returns and market and country-related risks. The Group’s weighted average cost of capital is reviewed on an annual basis.

If the cash flow or discount rate assumptions were to change because of market conditions, the level of impairment could be different and could result in the impairment of property, plant and equipment being increased or reversed, in part or in full, at a future date.

Further details are set out in Note 15 and Note 16.

Retirement benefits

Among the range of retirement benefits provided in businesses around the Group are a number of defined benefit pension plans and an unfunded healthcare benefit scheme in the US. The amounts recorded in the financial statements for both of these types of arrangement are based on a number of assumptions, changes to which could have a material impact on the reported amounts.

Any net deficit or surplus arising on defined benefit plans and the liability under the healthcare plan is shown in the statement of financial position. The amount recorded is the difference between plan assets and liabilities at the balance sheet date. Plan assets are based on market value at that date. Plan liabilities, including healthcare liabilities, are based on actuarial estimates of the present value of future pension or other benefits that will be payable to members. The most sensitive assumptions involved in calculating the expected liabilities are mortality rates and the discount rate used to calculate the present value. If the mortality rates assumption changed, a one year increase to longevity at age 65 would increase the liability by £65 million. The main financial assumption is the real discount rate, being the excess of the discount rate over the rate of inflation. If this assumption increased by 0.1%, the gross plan liabilities would decrease by approximately £19 million.

The income statement generally comprises a regular charge to operating profit and a finance charge, which represents the net of expected income from plan assets and an interest charge on plan liabilities. These calculations are based on expected outcomes at the start of the financial year. The income statement is most sensitive to changes in expected returns from plan assets and the discount rate used to calculate the interest charge on plan liabilities. A 0.1% increase in the assumption of the real discount rate would increase the finance expense by approximately £0.1 million.

Full details of these assumptions, which are based on advice from the Group’s actuaries, are set out in Note 30.


The Group recognises a provision where a legal or constructive obligation exists at the balance sheet date and a reliable estimate can be made of the likely outcome. Where appropriate, future cash outflows that are expected to arise over a number of years are discounted to a present value using a relevant discount rate.

At the balance sheet date, provisions included amounts for insurance claims payable by the Group’s reinsurance company, legal matters, employee termination and other restructuring costs.

Although provisions are reviewed on a regular basis and adjusted for management’s best current estimates, the judgemental nature of these items means that future amounts settled may be different from those provided.

Further details are set out in Note 31.


The Group operates in a large number of tax jurisdictions around the world. Tax regulations generally are complex and in some jurisdictions agreeing tax liabilities with local tax authorities can take several years. Consequently, at the balance sheet date, tax liabilities and assets are based on management’s best estimate of the future amounts that will be settled. While the Group aims to ensure that the estimates recorded are accurate, the actual amounts could be different from those expected.

Deferred tax assets mainly represent asset impairments and retirement benefit obligations that the Group expects to recover at some time in the future and by their nature the amounts recorded are therefore dependent on management’s judgement about future events.

Further details are set out in Note 11 and Note 29.